Methylation, MTHFR and Genetic Testing with Dr. Tim Jackson | Podcast #177

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Welcome to another podcast episode! In this video, Dr. Justin Marchegiani talks about testing for genetic disorders that cause developmental and motor dysfunctions. He talks about what’s happening during the genomic expressions of genes that cause these disorders and the different metabolic cycles that are affected, or that contributes to the effect of failed or misaligned expression.

To know more about how genes are expressed and how changes and down-regulation in its expression affect its translation, watch this video.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani

In this episode, we cover:

00:35   All about MTHFR

06:12   Homozygous and Heterozygous Snips in Polymorphisms

14:26   How Methyl Trapping Relates to MTHFR

29:00   Glutathione, Homocysteine and Methylation Issues

45:25   Microglial Functions Related to Neurons




Dr. Justin Marchegiani: We are live in the flesh here with Dr. Tim Jackson. Dr. Tim, so happy we could make this work. Again, Dr. Tim is a physician. You’re in Georgia, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: I’m in Georgia.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Roswell, Georgia.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Love it! And your website is, correct?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Correct. Exactly.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: You got a new website coming soon so— Love it.Dr Ch— Tim, welcome back to the podcast. This is your third time on the show. We got you in the flesh. So, let’s dig in first. Let’s do a quick little break down. Uh— MTHFR. Give us the breakdown. What is it, kind uh— why does it matter, and what do people need to do if they have it?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. So, it’s the enzyme that helps convert Folic acid or Folinic acid into Methylfolate, which is Vitamin B9. And…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …the reason that’s so important is methylation isn’t just one reaction. It’s several hundred to several thousand different reactions depending on what’s going on in the cell. And so it, methylation, the process as a whole, uh— requires not just Methylfolate but B12, all the other B Vitamins, Magnesium, Zinc, uhm— and some other select minerals, along…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And also you need healthy gut function too. So, a lot of people just think, “Okay. I’m just gonna avoid Folic acid and take a Methylated folate and I’m good”, right? But it, also, the gut function, plays into it, too, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. And that’s where people— you know— A lot of times, they think that I’m not gonna work on— you know— methylation epigenetics because I don’t start there, but— you know— you’re— You made a great point. And then, the other thing is, if you have a lot of uh— bacterial infections in the gut, it uh— the uh— in the— the lipopolysaccharides endo— endotoxins overload Phase 1 and Phase 2 in the liver. And so— you know— the first thing you want to do is relieve as much stress as you can on the liver, and that right there is gonna help to improve methylation and all the— the different reactions— acetylation, glucuronidation, uhm— saltation— that are in uh— Phase 2 in the liver.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yes.

Dr. Tim Jackson: So, just to g— kind of summarize the whole processes, the whole methylation is responsible for creating your— some of your immune cells called CD4 and CD8…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup. Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …you heep— uh— Helper T cells and Suppressor T cells, uh— Glutathione, which is very important for detox, but uh— It’s also an— an important antiviral…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …that helps control uh— the redox status of the cell.,

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Correct.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uh— it’s rem— responsible for neurotransmitter production, Serotonin and Dopamine. Uhm— it’s also responsible for different growth factors that deliver and process nutrients to the cells. And also, it plays a significant role in controlling inflammation and viral replication or viral expression. Normally, we want any viruses we have in our body and our DNA to be methylated so that they don’t express their genes. And if we’re not methylating well, those viruses can become active.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it. And so, methylation, how does it activate our— our genome? ‘Cause we have— all methyl— all methyl donor is— is a Carbon and three Hydrogens.

Dr. Tim Jackson: RIght.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, it basically attaches itself to various parts of the genome, and that’s— It has major effects at— at activating various genetic expressions. So, what’s happening there? Like, what’s happening at the genetic level? Is that methyl group literally binding to each part of the genome? What’s going on there?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. So— I mean, you can methylate neurotransmitters, you can methylate hormones. For example— you know—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: That’s just that Car— Carbon and three Hydrogen binding or interacting with that biochemical reaction, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: E— Exactly. Exactly. And so— you know it’s important for so many different uh— systems in the body— pretty much every system in the body is impacted by methylation, either directly or indirectly. And uh— you have on your DNA or in our nuclear DNA what are called CpG islands, which are just uh— It’s a portion of your DNA where the methyl group binds. Uhm— And uh— you have to move around. You know, our nuclear D— nuclear DNA is protected by histones, which are these proteins that help t keep it folded up. And uh— there are some things that you want to uh— methylate and some things that you don’t want methylated. For example, you want your cancer genes methylated so they don’t express. If they do express— you know— that’s obviously not a good thing. But, in terms of adding a methyl group of Carbon and three Hydrogen atoms that can be done to our neurotransmitters to move them along the uhm— metabolic pathways that they’re on. Uh— Also, the Krebs, cycle uhm— ATP, and uh— recycling back to ADP. Uhm— And then, the production of— you know— Glutathione is so important uhm— you know— that plays a role or— and it’s affected by other polymorphisms, which that— You know— MTHFR is a polymorphism. It’s not a mutation. So just to kind of tell uh— touch on that, trisomi 21 or Down Syndrome, that would be a mutation. MTHFR is what we call a single nucleotide polymorphism. So, when we talk about DNA, it has [crosstalk] a— an alphabet uhm— A, T, C, and G. And those— so those are the four letters. Normally, A binds to T, C binds to G. But if you get a spelling error or glitch, it can cause some hiccups on your biochemistry. And just because you have a polymorphism, doesn’t mean it’s expressing. So— you know— Sometimes, I’ll get patients and their first page may be mostly red, but they may be feeling great. And they’re doing really well, because the information that you feed your genes, including how you think, how you sleep, how you eat, how you exercise— you know— are you breathing in mycotoxins, are you getting enough sunlight. That determines whether the polymorphisms are expressed or not.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Exactly. So, with MTHFR, we have the A— the A one. A binds to T. That’s the A1298C, I think.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhmhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And then we can be heterozygous or homozygous. Homozygous means we have both copies of that snip. Heterozygous means we only have one.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhmhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, it’s a plus and a minus. And then, we have the uhm— the C one. The C binds to G, right? The C677T, I think, [crosstalk] and that binds to uhm— that binds to the G, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right. [crosstalk] Yeah, so— Typically, I mean— There’s several other forms—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And then, one last— I want to just add one I just want to stack on to this. So, if we have only one of the C ones. If we’re heterozygous, we only have one of those snips for the C— what— It’s like a 30 percent reduction in our ability to activate and convert Folic. And then, [crosstalk] if we have both, it’s like— what— 50 percent. And then, if we are homozygous on both, the C and the A, what is it, a 70 or 80 percent reduction?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. Yeah, and then depends on which— You know— I know, you’re referring to MTHFR but…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah.

Dr. Tim Jackson: It depends on which snip you’re talking about. And a good— This is probably a good time to bring it up. You know, sometimes, when you see a plus sign, that means that there’s a down-regulation of that enzyme, and that’s what we’re referring to with…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Umnmn—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …methylation.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yes.

Dr. Tim Jackson: You know, the enzyme I— uh— and its reactions are slowing down. But— uh— there are some polymorphisms where when you see a plus sign, it means that the reactions have sped up. And— So, that’s an important distinction on up-regulation  versus a down-regulation.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Interesting. And then, if we have— If we’re het— For homozygous, both the C and the A, what percent reduction in that, in that activation of that enzyme is there?

Dr. Tim Jackson: If you have the— If you’re homozygous  for A1298C?

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And the C677T.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Oh, and the C677T. You know, I’ve seen different statistics from 70 all the way to— you know, uh— high 80’s. Uhm— The other thing that people don’t realize is that, you can have, let’s say, you’re negative. Negative for all the MTHFR markers. You can have what I call a functional polymorphism, where if you have a lot of oxidative stress, a lot of heavy metals, uhm— those can block or slow down those pathways, as well. So— you know— you got to consider the redox status or the oxidative stress in the cell, nutrient availability, mineral status, all those things factored in.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: How do you evaluate a functional deficiency again? I— If there’s no ge— genome that are positive there. If there are no positive snips.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Sol, there’s a— a test that measures sand-to-saw ratios…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhuh—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …with your— just two metabolites of the methylation pathway. Uhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: That— That’s Adenosylmethionine versus Adenosylhomocysteine, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Correct. And uhm— you know, Dr.’s data does that.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: There’s a— a more in-depth one from a company called Health Diagnostics Research Institute, but they’re in Europe. So, it takes a little bit longer. Uhm— and— So that’s you know, kind of looking at real-time, the food you’re eating, the supplements you’re taking, the life you’re living, how well you’re methylating. And uh— actually on the dutch test now, they have like a little gas gauge.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Love that.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. Because— you know— like I was saying earlier, you have to methylate your hormones, especially your estrogens in order to be able to get rid of them. And so, we can get a look at— you know— how well you’re methylating. And— you know— I tell people when we first start out, we may need to take Methylfolate everyday. And then, over time, and depending on how many stressors you’re uh crewing in your body, at that moment, or dealing with, you might be able to go down to three times a week or even two times a week. So— you know— the same sort of principle when supplementing was something like Magnesium that everyone’s deficient in, I typically have people take it, both orally and topically, for the first two months, and then go down to just orally.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: It’s great. So, I want to get your take on it, ‘cause, I mean, I see a lot of MTHFR stuff and I think it’s— I think it’s kind of overrated. I know we talked about this before because just by working on someone’s gut, you can help methylation, right? So we talked about [crosstalk] where people are— There’s like three— I call them rabbit holes in functional medicine. One is Lyme, one is mold and mycotoxins, and the other is MTHFR. And not that they aren’t real. They are important issues but there’s— they mimic so many other issues where you can have a gut infection and adrenal dysfunction and low thyroid, and it can look like a Lyme co-infection, or it can look like an MTHFR issue or a mold issue. And the question is, Are you treating it, just because there’s so many symptoms that correlate with it, or have you done your due diligence over all the other functional medicine hierarchy and work your way down. So, now having said that, if someone’s not eating— you know— a whole bunch of bread or a whole bunch of refined orange juice that has got a whole bunch of added Folic acid in it. And they’re getting their leafy greens, maybe some liver, maybe some good quality meats. Uhm— Where does the MTHFR hurt you there? If you’re pulling out a lot of the synthetic Folic acid, that’s where MTHFR can really mess you up ‘cause of that folate you’re getting is just crappy Folic acid, and you can’t make that conversion. Clinically—

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right. That unmetabolized Folic acid Metametrics actually has a test for it because it lowers your natural killer cell level.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Exactly.

Dr. Tim Jackson: So—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Any comments on what I just said, though?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Oh, yeah. Yeah.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: If we’re not consuming that Folic acid, that— that’s a huge part of this, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: ‘Cause that’s [crosstalk] dangerous metabolites can happen?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. So, part of it is also— you know, leafy greens— you know— supplies a lot of uhm— unmethylated folate or activated uhm— folate, and not synthetic Folic acid. If you’re eating— you know— general meals— you know— corn pops or pretty pebbles in the morning, then— you know— you’re getting a lot of Folic acid in. I used to have an office right across from OB-GYN, and I said, “You know, I’ll come in and do a lecture to your patients on— you know— why this is so important in terms of conception and uh— viable pregnancy.” And she said, “Oh, I already treat them THFR. I give them Folic acid.”

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Right.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And I’m like, “That’s the opposite of what you want to do.”

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah.

Dr. Tim Jackson: But I deal with a lot of Lyme and mold, and I tend to kind of see it from the other end. I do see the— the adrenal dysfunction, the thyroid dysfunction. And— you know— obviously, when your body temperature is low, your gonna have a lot of chronic infections.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Totally.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And so, I tell people whether I’m working with a pro athlete or a kid with autism— you know— not only does the gut have to be optimal, but the adrenals and the thyroid. Because, if those aren’t functioning, it’s gonna slow down every enzymatic reaction in the body, and you got to tackle those before you start addressing sex hormones. And— you know— In terms of Lyme and mold, it’s really the Chronic Inflammatory Cascade that comes after it that hacks into your neuroendocrineimmune super system. So, it can affect the neurotransmitters, your hormones. And when— you know— Us guys, when we have too much inflammation, too much of our testosterone converts to estrogen. Women, too much of their estrogen  converts to testosterone. So, you know, it’s all tangled in there. Uhm— And— but— What I see a lot of times is people, they try to kill an infection over and over and over and over. And one of my mentors told me, “You can’t kill your way to health, you know.” And what he meant by that was— you know— not only do you need to change the terrain, but you need to— you know— optimize body temperature, adrenal function, uhm— because a lot of people that are going to put on quote natural pass, and— you know— just— They’re getting put on a bunch of adaptogens, but there’s no further investigation as to what’s causing HPA, the uh— TGG dysfunction.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Dysfunction. Right.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And that’s why I really appreciate your perspective because when we’re talking about MTHFR, you’re looking upstreams— Well, you’re looking at the gut function as not just, “Hey. Let’s give you some folate or even— you know— some methylated B12. Let’s go look at all the gut issues.” And again, if we start giving nutrients— right? It’s kind of a sequence, right? I mean, we talked…

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yep.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: …about giving Choline, giving other kind of methylated B vitamins alongside of it.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhmhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And there’s an order sometimes. Can you talk about methyl trapping a little bit, as well as how that relates to MTHFR?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. So, metal trapping is basically so— You— You’ve probably heard or your audience probably heard of uh— undermethylation, meaning you’re not putting enough methyl groups on hormones, neurotransmitters, and other substrates. Uhm— Or you can be over-methylating, where you’re putting too many methyl groups. And, just to kind of generalize, people who are over methylators, they tend to be kind of anxious on hav— you know— pretty bad anxiety, trouble sleeping, uh— they get stressed out, uh— take some a long time to come out of that— you know— thunk. Uhm— And so, the under and over-methylation can have to do or is connected to the methyl trapping, and uh— you know— as you mentioned, in terms of— on order of doing things. You know— the B12 and the Methylfolate are actually the last nutrients you— you want someone to start, because if you have a significant amount of oxidative stress and you add B12 and Methylfolate, you create Peroxynitrite, which is the second most common or the second strongest uhm— free radical in the body. And so— you know— I start by replenishing Magnesium, Iodine— all the minerals, really.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, like a really good kind of like uh— a multivitamin kind of support. And then, you kind of add in like a B minus, where it’s everything but the B12 and Folate to start.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. So, that’s what I typically do and I didn’t really get multiminerals just because— you know— so many people are so deficient in Magnesium, but I have to keep up my levels for a while.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Go higher. Right.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. And then, if some— if some people have Pyroluria, uh— you know, they may need extra Manganese or Zinc…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …or B6, uhm— or GLA but uh— you’re right. Yeah. You want to add in a supplement like B minus and again, you’re kind of prepping the pathways because most people, they kind of think, “Oh, B vitamins, that can’t possibly hurt myself.” But, you’ve got to think of it like uh— uhm— jammed up— you know— freeway that’s been closed for two days, and now it’s open and cars are all over the place. And so, suddenly, when the nutrients— uh— when you have these nutrients that you need for these reactions to occur, your body turn on reactions that had been turned on for a long time. And so, uhm— you know— you want to try and go slowly uhm— because sometimes people well— There’s usually three types of people. They’ll start feeling good, and they’ll stay feeling good. They’re your kind of the— I think, rarest, in my opinion. They start off feeling good and have a honeymoon period then they crash. And then, the third group, they start off feeling poorly, and then— you know— they stay feeling poorly because things were done in the wrong order or they may just be so toxic. I mean, if someone’s having two bowel movements a week and you’re flooding them with methyl donors— you know— trying to detox. You’re essentially just retoxifying and redistributing things throughout the body.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, to avoid a lot of that methyl trapping we’ll do some of the mineral and vitamin stuff first. We’ll do the B minus vitamins, which is everything but the folate and B12 second. And then, do you prefer going folate third or B12 third?

Dr. Tim Jackson : B12 and along with the B12— you know— typically, I have…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Tenoxil hydroxyl kind of ones?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yes.So— But along with that uhm— Lithium orotate because it helps…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …transport B12 into…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …the cell. Uhm— But B12— you know— depending on uhm— what someone’s issues are, Adenosyl is more gonna help the Mitochondria.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Hydroxy’s more uhm— gonna help Nitric oxide a— and uh— blood vessel health. Uhm— And then, Methyl B12, uh— you know— depending on what their tolerance is for methyl donors. So— you know— WE’ll talk about COMT uh— here in a minute. But— you know— if you add too many methyl donors, like for example, a prescription Methylfolate is DEPLIN. And it starts in really high doses. So, you can put someone in a manic state or Psychotic state if you go from zero to seven and a half uhm— milligrams of uhm— Methylfolate. And so, like you said, yeah. Really improving gut health uhm— you know— Most people don’t like that connection necessarily, but that’s really where you want to start in terms of addressing uh— Methylfolate. And then— you know— Someone’s really sensitive when they do start Methylfolate. I’ll have them take it maybe every other day, or every third day.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: If you like it in liquid form so you can titrate it up slower?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— You can do it in liquid form. I also use uh— in transdermal form.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Okay.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— So, the— It’s actually in Austin, Texas, but Neurobiologix.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— So they have uh— nurse called neuro-immune stabilizer, and it has a higher dose of Methylfolate, along with B6 and B12. And, reason for that is— you know— a lot of kids in the autism spectrum have methylation issues, and it’s one less thing for them to swallow. So— Uhm— you know— Using the topical cream is one way. Uhm— And then the B12 uh— even— uh— You can over-methylate someone just with too much Methyl B12, And so— you know— you always want a— If you’re gonna start that, or do a trial period of it. Start in very low dose and not,— you know— what the shots at really high doses.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: That’s why you want your gut to be working better ‘cause if you over-methylate, start dumping a whole bunch of stuff, you don’t have good detoxification system and good gut function, you can reabsorb a lot of that stuff, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right, absolutely. Yeah. You can retoxify, and— you know— just to talk about heavy metals briefly— you know— If there’s not inflammation in the GI tract, metals should come out through your Phase III transporters. But, when you— you know—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: When you say Phase III transporters, what are those exactly? ‘Cause most people that talk about detox, they kind of summar— summarize it, Phase I, Phase II, right? Fat-soluble, the water-soluble— water-soluble uh— What’s Phase III?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Phase III is transport out of the body. So, they’re—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, they’re part of Phase II almost. They’re similar.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— kind of. Yeah. This is more in the actual gut lining.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Mhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: And— you know— It’s gonna bind the metals,and help escort them out. But— you know— Chris Shade talks about this a lot. When there’s inflammation or malabsorption or assimilation problems in the gut, that shuts down Phase III. And— you know— it puts extra stress on Phase II and add some of the stress to the kidneys. And so— That’s why it’s so important. You know— We talked about gut health and it being important , but no one talks very much about Phase III, and I— you know— just gave you perso— personal anecdote. Uhm— About eleven or twelve years ago, I had IV Chelation, and it did— I have 15 or 16 treatments. It didn’t budge my metals because my gut is inflamed. And my methylation pathways weren’t working. So— you know— A lot of people will— you know— throw you on IV this or IV that without really knowing— you know— the downstream or upstream consequences.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yes. So, the GI tract is really important with Phase III. That’s good. That’s why I’m always a big fan of— I’ve always go through— you know— my Three Body Systems. System 1 is the hormone. System two is digestion and infections.I always do Phase II Body System 2 first if we go to Body System 3, which is detox and nutrients. And a lot of it’s built-in for that reason because if the gut’s working better, then that Phase III will work a lot better too, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Oh, absolutely. Yeah. And— I mean, you want to calm down inflammation— you know— regardless, in the gut. That’s just to give you one more reason to do it.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: We may see that by just getting rid of infections and also seeing improvements in uh— IGA levels and also Cal-protected.

Dr. Tim Jackson: You’re right.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Correct?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Exactly. Exactly.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: That’s great. Now, let’s go back to methyl trapping. So, we’re doing kind of the protocol in that order, B12 third, and we’ll probably will use like an hy— a hyd— a hydroxyl, Adenosyl B12, right? Adenosyl mitochondria hydroxy for Nitric oxide. And we’re doing that in that order to prevent kind of the— the highway from getting crowded with cars, so to speak. Right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And then, give you the Folate, and maybe some of the methylated B12 forth. Is that the case?

Dr. Tim Jackson: So, what I’ll do is uh— I’ll have, typically, people do either Adenosyl and a really small metal methyl, or Adenosyl/Hydroxy B12. Then— you know— I’ll give it, say five to seven days, and then have them slowly titrate in or layer in the Methylfolate. And— you know— what’s that does is kind of stabilize. You know— ‘Cause I try to keep all the other variables constant. Then, we’ll add in some B12, Methyl B12, at a small dose to see how they tolerate it. Uhm— A lot of times, people will look at their COMT polymorphism and they’ll say, “Oh. I’m homozygous. I have two copies for this. Can’t take Methyl B12.” But really, it’s more of just a trial and error. Again, because you don’t—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: There, where it talks about the methylation, then you connects it to a lot of the neurotransmitters, to Dopamine…

Dr. Tim Jackson: Okay. yeah.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: …to Serotonin. Want to get your take on that.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. So, you can be uh— Dopamine-insufficient and uh— Kendal Stewart, that I did some training with in Austin. Uhm— He put together seven different neural sensory tests. Uhm— one is the impact— you know— coming back from my concussion. You know— Eye on tracking EMG, and then, testing the eighth cranial nerve because he found— you know— through connecting the dots in a research that certain patterns uhm— on a hearing test well indicates both Dopamine-insufficiency and a viral infection.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And— And so, the Dopamine is extremely important. And s— Yeah. I don’t want to go too far off track, but there’s actually a condition called Cerebral Folate deficiency, where you can have normal levels of uh— the methylated B vitamins in the bloodstream. But they may not be getting into the cerebral spinal fluid and affecting your neurological health like they should be. And, that can be caused by antibodies to uhm— beta-Casein uh— you know— in dairy. And in those cases, you typically have to use high doses uh— to uh— flood and upregulate the transporters. Uhm— And— you know— Sometimes, the antibodies will go away. Sometimes they want uhm— I was at a  conference last weekend and uh— there’s several labs now testing for that antibodies. Uhm— Because if you have that, then that’s super important. And, in terms of the neurotransmitters— you know— this is a whole other lecture, but they— a lot of times, low neurotransmitters precede low hormone levels.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it. Amazing. So, I’m pulling a couple things up here now, so we can— we can chat about it hee. So, I have our methylation map. I’m gonna open up this image now so we can— we can chat about it. And I’m gonna shoot it over in your Skype window, as well, so you can take a peek at it, if that helps.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Okay.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Alright.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Let’s see.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Maybe a little bit fuzzy. I’ll put it on your Skype window here so you can see it. [crosstalk] I’ll put it up there. I’ll grab another one here. And then, folks, we’re live, right? So, we are— we are just— This is real. We’re just going at it. We’re adapting to the environment, trying to bring some extra great information here. So, Dr. Tim, pull that PDF. I’m gonna pull up a methylation cycle uh— chart here. Then we’ll— We’ll kind of comment on it and break it down for some of the listeners to make sense of it all.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Okay. Uhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Here’s a good one right here. I just want one that I can zoom in pretty well on.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. Sorry. I’m just having a little trouble with my Skype. Uhm— It’s on my end. I don’t know what’s going on. Uhm— But can you tell me what diagram I’m— we’re looking at?

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah. I’m gonna send you one right now here. I’m gonna send you this one.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Well, that’s the thing. When I— Sorry, guys, but when I— uh— try to bring up my Skype, it’s uh— frozen. Wait. Okay, now, there you go.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah. This— Do the one that’s purple here. There’s purple one I like. It’s really nice. I can kind of zoom in on it a little bit better. Uh— I got it up on screen here.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Okay. I eh— uhm— [pause] Yeah. I thought I worked all these kinks. Hold on. One second. Uuhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: I’ gonna just download this one here so we got it.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Okay. Uh— [inaudible whistle-like sound]

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Okay. here it is on my screen. So, I’ll just keep…

Dr. Tim Jackson: Oh, there we go. [crosstalk] Yes.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: … here.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yes. Yeah.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah. So, check your Skype. It’s gonna be right in your Skype chat window. It’s also in the chat window on your uhm— Google chat. But, there’s a couple of these things here, right? They— They highlight decreased methylation, increased ammonia, elevated Homocysteine. These are all kind of by-products of what may happen in the methylation pathway. Can you just kind of go through here and just kind of break down, just the key most important ones. There’s so many over factoids here. I don’t want to overwhelm people. I just want them to get kind of what’s the big take home? What should they be looking at in this methylation cycle?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah, a couple of things. The bit— That BH4 is probably one of the most important molecules they have never heard of. It’s Tetrahydrobiopterin.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: And, itr is the precursor to uhm— all of your neurotransmitters.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: That’s right here. This BH4 one; right here.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right. Exactly.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Great.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And so— you know— BH4, you can get it s— uh— in supplement form, but it’s usually not enough to be— reach a therapeutic level. Uhm— So, you can actually have it compounded. Uhm— I have a colleague of mine— you know, for my patients, see them and uh— call on the prescription, but the BH4 is important for neurotransmitter health, uhm— detoxification, uhm— and just overall neurological health. And that can be depleted by things like Ammonia. You know— It says increased ammonia. Ammonia’s gonna— you know— not only make your urine smell uhm— but it can interfere with the Urea cycle. And you can see there— you know— the Homocysteine, Cystathionine, which goes to Cysteine and Ammonia, and from there you can make Glutathione uh— and Taurine. Glutathione— obviously being incredibly important, as your levels of Glutathione decline, your risk of every disease known to man actually increases.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Hmm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: So, that’s extremely important. Elevated Homocysteine— This is important for everyone to— to take note of this. So, typically, C677T, MTHFR C677T, everyone— you know— kind of thinks of elevated Homocysteine, and it can cause that, and that puts you at increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and in women, decreased uh— bone density. BUt, you can have perfectly normal Homocysteine which uh— one of my mentor says between seven and nine is normal. Uhm— Or you can actually have low Homocysteine, where it’s down around three or four. And so, if Homocysteine is high, you definitely have a methylation issue, but if it’s normal or low, you can still have a methylation issue. A lot of times, and I don’t want to go too deep into it, but once Homocysteine is really low, it’s going down and I don’t think it’s on it’s pathway, the CBS pathway and uh— thye CBS drain, as they call it, but—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Right here, [crosstalk] CBS.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. There we go, right there. And so, you know, that’s important uhm— because sometimes— And there’s a good paper on it. S— Uh— written by, I think, Dr. Lord Metametrix.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yep. [crosstalk] Lord’s. Yep.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. From uhm— importance of Homo— slow Homocysteine. Uhm— Dr. Stewart keeps a ton of data and he said that— you know— just correlationally, uhm— his sickest patients have the lowest Homocysteine.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: On it. So, let’s just kind of break this down, right? We talked about MTHFR. So, MTHFR is affecting over here. This is the metabolism of Folic acid or for not consuming Folic acid, Folate, or Calcium folinate into ultimately LMTHF, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: L-Methyltetrahydrofolate. And the enzyme that’s involved in that is the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, correct? And this kind of ratchets this around, and then what’s happening as we ratchet this around. What’s happening here in this process?

Dr. Tim Jackson: So, you’re uh— adding and taking away methyl groups.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uh— So, you pro— Earlier— you know— we talked about Folic acid and then, I briefly mentioned, Folinic. So…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Folinic acid is one step more active that Folate, but one step lower than L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate. So, I mentioned uh— high-dose Folinic acid being used for Cerebral Folate Deficiency, and that’s prescription Luca born— Uhm— But you can also do a supplement-wise, uhm— from the researchers as I’ve talked to and I— I don’t know the exact reason. I don’t think they know either that uh— Folinic has some neurological benefits uhm— above and beyond what  L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate does. And, I asked that question because that’s what they used in the studies in people with Cerebral Folate Deficiency. Uhm— But, basically, you’re adding Methyl groups. You’re taking away Methyl groups. You’re moving them around. Uhm— but with that BH4, if it’s low, uh— pretty much all your neurotransmitters are gonna be off. And that can affect mood, sleep, uh— cognition, everything. And uhm— So, with MTHFR, the A1298C, you typically— you can see elevated Homocysteine, but you, typically, don’t. You typically— That one is kind of more associated with what we call neuroimmune syndromes. So, disorders, like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, MS, Autism, Lupus, etc.— all under that category.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Interesting.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. And then, with the Ammonia— you know— that is important because it drains your BH4. Uhm— So, elevated Ammonia will deplete, uhm— your BH4, uhm— and it can also deplete uh— NItric oxide in some instances.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Interesting. So, why is— And again, if you’re listening to this on the podcast, guys, make sure you check out the video because we have pictures up here, and Dr. Tim’s kind of breaking it down. So, we’re trying to narrow down ‘cause a lot of people talk about this stuff. And on the podcast, it’s so hard to break these things down without some kind of a diagram or ima— image or framework.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, this is really helpful on the podcast side. So, we have MTR, right? We know B12 is really important with MTR. What’s MTR doing the [crosstalk] MTHFR isn’t?

Dr. Tim Jackson: MTR and MTRR have to do with processing B12, and typically, if you’re heterozygous or homozygous, you’re gonna require extra B12. And uh— one thing that’s important to note, as you know, everyone checks serum B12, or traditional medical doctors do. But, as a— as we both know, high in the blood, low in the cell…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: … and that’s where lithium transport comes in. Uh— if you look at some of the Asian countries and their reference ranges for B12, they’re much higher, and there’s been no documented adverse events to B12. But, there are studies showing the higher your B12 levels, the slower your brain ages and the slower it shrinks. And so, with MTR and MTRR, uhm— you know— Again, that gets back to the gut as well— you know— with intrinsic factor, etc. But also, you may uh— need B12 shots. You can do them sublingually, for a while. Uhm— You can do it topically. Uhm— You can do it uh— nebulize it. There’s so many different ways. Uhm— But B12 uh— you know— is extremely important. And— you know— the MTR and MTRR are processing that B12. And so that— you know— is where you look. See— “Okay. This person— Let’s check their Methylmalonic acid, uh— and see if it’s high, and see if— you know— they need extra B12.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Love it. Very good. And then, if we keep on going down, we talked about the acid Adenosylmethionine, up here, and the Adenosylhomocysteine. So, of course, these all comes from Sulfur amino acids, Methionine. And we know, we need B6, we need Folate here to prevent this from going down the Homocysteine pathway right down here.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhuh—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, we need all those nutrients to allow this wheel to keep on turning. Is that correct?

Dr. Tim Jackson: That’s correct. And if you look at this little part— portion of the diagram here, where it says DNA, RNA, protein and lipids, think about how important that is. You— you know— You’re methylating your DNA and your RNA.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Mhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: So, you’re literally affecting gene expression. Uhm— And of course— you know— methylating protein and lipids is important as well, but— you know— we’re talking about building nucleotides here— you know— the very backbone of our uh— DNA. So that’s extremely important. Uhm— And in terms of— you know— you see the VDR in here, which is Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms. And— I don’t want to get too far off track but al— a lot of pathogens can affect—you know— negative way, the VItamin D Receptor…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Mhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: ..and it prevents the Vitamin D from turning on some of the immune cells, like the uh— T regulatory cells, that it should. And so— you know— there’s a whole protocol, where they have you avoid Vitamin D, which I don’t believe in. But the point being that these pathogens are really smart and they can really manipulate our biochemistry, and so we have to really sit down and say— you know— “How do we bypass this?”

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah, and you can see, like a big imbalance between 25-Hydroxy and 125-Hydroxy, right? [crosstalk] 125’s way skewed, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Thank you for saying that. Yes. You’re the only doctor that I’ve talked to who gets that. And, the other thing is— you know— even if you move your 25-Hydroxy and increases but you’re not sulphating it, if you’re not getting enough Vitamin D, and if you’re a Hyper Converter, uh— you know— you might be creating more inflammation. And if your Ma— RBC Magnesium is low, you might be further, excreting that through the urine. SO, you really have to, you know, think through these things and not just throw— you know— the latest supplement at it, and hope it [crosstalk] works.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, we may have to work on getting rid of that infection. What do you also think about using things like Japanese Knotweed or ret— Resveratrol to help with that balance?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uh— For the infections?

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Well, for the 25 to 125 imbalance.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Oh, yeah.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: I’ve seen some research [crosstalk] about Japanese Knotweed sample.

Dr. Tim Jackson: [crosstalk] I mean, there’s so many things. I’m all about uh— nutrients, like Curcumin and Resveratrol that affect many different pathways.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah. A lot of those nerve 2 pathways, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right, exactly. So, yeah. I— I think the Resveratrol uh— is very good. Uhm— And then, you— you— I’m not sure how to pronounce the activated form, as were for resveratrol, the PT— you know what I’m talking about?

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yep. I know what you’re talking about. Yep.

Dr. Tim Jackson: I have no idea how to pronounce it, but uh— you know— that’s supposed to work really well. UH— And then, what was the other nutrient you asked me about?

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, let me just switch gears a little bit here too. So we— we’re kind of here, right? We talked about Homocysteine and these methylating nutrients. We went down here into the Cysteine and then Glutathione. We talked about how all cause mortality increases with local Glutathione. Let’s switch gears and talk about the Catecholamine methyltransferase and how this connects with Dopamine and our neurotransmitters. Let’s chat about that, too.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. Let’s chat about not only that but also how COMT affects Estrogen levels. [pause] So—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Absolutely.

Dr. Tim Jackson: With the COMT, uh— and I’m a little bit biased ‘cause I have it, but there’s a tradeoff. You know— Nature is smarter, way smarter than we are. And w— you know— if you have one or two copies of this snip, uh— there was a tradeoff. You got it for a reason at some point in time. And, they found that people with COMT have, in general, have higher IQs. Uhm— you know— That’s statistically significant and— But the tradeoff for that is if you cut me off in traffic, I’m gonna probably throw my cup of coffee at the window at you, and I’ll be pissed off all day. Uh— and then— you know—it’ll take me forever to— you know— not be ticked off. But, with the COMT— you know— there’s several different uh— versions of it. And earlier, we mentioned that— you know— there’s one. I think it’s the V158. That’s uhm— a downregulation— or excuse me, upregulation of the COMT pathway. Whereas the others are downregulation. And so, what that means is your Epinephrine, your Norepinephrine, your Dopamine, they don’t get broken down like they should. And so, you can kind of stay in that Fight or Flight or Sympathetic Dominant state. And, with the COMT— that’s gets to the other point where you asked about— you know— “Should you start with Methyl B12? Should you not?” So— you know— if you’re a homozygous— you know— two copies of COMT of several different forms of it— you know— you probably don’t want to start right off the bat with Methyl B12. The other thing that COMT uh— impacts is your ability to process and excrete Estrogens. And so, if it’s not working correctly, and there are several other polymorphisms that impact this as well, uhm— on the first page of the report, some of the Cytochrome P450, uh— enzymes. Then you can really be predisposed to Estrogen Dominance. But again, I had a lady a few months ago, she was homozygous for, I think, three or four snips that can negatively affect Estrogen. But when we checked her levels, they are actually low. So, the point being that— you know— you always— when you can, you want to check biomarkers to see what’s going on.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Absolutely. And which craft do you like better? Do you like this one over here, or do you like this one better?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— Probably the first one.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Okay. Yeah. This really talked more about the COMT there. Alright, that’s good. So, what are the big nutrients we’re trying to give here. Is it that more of this— the Sulfur amino acid to help more, though the COMT brain pathways?

Dr. Tim Jackson: So, with the COMT, you know you want— you got to have all the good minerals. You got to have all the…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yep.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …[crosstalk] other B vitamins cofactors. Yeah. And so, the main thing is just uh— the form of vitamin B12 that you get. Uh— you want to— you know— ease into it if you’re gonna give uh— Methyl B12. And uh— you know— just remember that— you know— you’re gonna be getting methyl donors uhm— from Methyl folate, B9. And then if you get B12, in the methylated form, So that’s all— you know— a lot of Methyl groups right there. And so, that’s why— you know— you don’t want to give too many methyl groups at once because, not only— I mean, it can throw you into a panic attack, anxiety attack, and uh— you can keep— Here’s a little trick that some people may know. Niacin kind of quenches or eats up or degrades excess methyl groups. So, if you over methylate, take too much Methylfolate or Methyl B12, you can take some Niacin to ameliorate the symptoms.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: I love it. So, let’s keep it really simple here. We have three major groups here. We have our neurotransmitter kind of synthesis over here, where we have Serotonin, and Dopamine, and all the amino acids that— that flow into that.  

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhuh—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: We have our Folate cycle over here, where we have MTHFR working. And then, we have our Methionine cycle, where we’re taking Methionine. We’re converting it to semi— to Adenosylhomocysteine to Cysteine to Glutathione. So, we have our Glutathione nutrients here. We need Zinc. We need Magnesium. We need B vitamins, B12, to run our methionine cycle.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhmhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: On the folate side, we need B6, Serine, Magnesium, B vitamins, folate, to run our Folate cycle. And then, of course, we need B vitamins and uhm— obviously, the amino acids, right? Tryptophan and Tyrosine, those kind of things, to run our [crosstalk] neurotransmitter synthesis cycle. Did you want to add anything to that?

Dr. Tim Jackson: No. I mean, I think the— the big picture to take home here— So, if you look right here, you’d see no Krebs cycle, which is our energy cycle.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Over here. Yep, over here. Yep.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. And so, uhm— you know— energy production is affected by methylation, and so— you know, if you wa— don’t walk away with anything else and then just know that methylation kind of hang— has it’s paws, or hands, and all the different systems of the body, in one way, shape or form. Uhm— you know— again, because you’re affecting gene expression, which is gonna determine— you know— what proteins you create in the cell and which ones you don’t. Uhm— And then, you know, with the Ammonia, uh— and the Citrulline and the Nitric oxide. We didn’t talk too much about this, but the Nitric oxide synthase, or synthetase enzymes, help convert uhm— They take uh— Arginine and Oxygen, and they make Nitric oxide, which is extremely important for uhm— basal dilation and blood pressure. So, if someone has high Ammonia, and they’re depleting their BH4, uhm— they will have trouble creating a Nitric oxide. Uhm— Same thing with the Nitric oxide synthetase polymorphisms. And then, if you look down, we talked— touched on this briefly but— where it says uh— Proxy Nitrite and Superoxide. Those are two very strong uh— free radicals. And you’ll see the path the arrow. It says neuronal damage. And then, microglial activation. You— you’re microglial cells, or the resident white blood cells in the brain.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Mmm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: And we used to just— We kind of have this habit in medicine of saying that something just has a structural role, and then, a few years later, we’re like, “Okay. Maybe it doesn’t just have a structural role.” Maybe it had a lot of functions. And uh— the microglial are— are just like that and meant to be are— are not meant to be turned on for long periods of time. When they are, you get uh— death of the neurons, uhm– the cells in the nervous systems. So— you know— there’s not just a moot point. It’s an important point. Uhm— and if you have leaky gut, uh— you’re gonna end up with leaky gut-brain barrier, and a lot of those uh— Peroxynitrite superoxide free radicals can— you know— get to the brain and kind of punch holes in the blood-brain barrier.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, it’s not just supporting these nutrients. It’s about doing things in the right order, correct?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Exactly. Exactly.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And let’s take a look at this genetic test here. The patients then— this in a while back and wanted to— to kind of just go through just some of the key— you know— take homes here. I know that you have work on this MTHFR support site and create this. So— you know— looking at this like, “What’s the take home?” You see two positives, which mean that ther— they  have uh— their homozygous with these polymorphisms. What does that mean to you on this first page?

Dr. Tim Jackson: So, again, like you mentioned earlier— you know— having two copies slows that enzyme down more than if you just have one copy.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Correct.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And the 1A2 and the 1B1, those can also— So, I tend to look at uh— polymorphisms in groups in terms of how can they impact your physiology. And so, COMT, along with the side  from P1V1 and the 1A2, those can all affect Estrogen levels. Uhm— So, grouping those together— you know— one by itself may not have a significant impact, or clinically significant impact.          

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, kind of these right here. These all together the— the C1—

Dr. Tim Jackson: Exactly. [crosstalk] And—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: …down to the B1.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right. Just so everybody knows, when you say CYP, that’s Phase 1 detox. So, that’s in for Cytochrome P450.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uh— good.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And, so this is— you know— again, taking uhm— you know— fat-soluble nutrients and making them water-soluble. Uhm— And you want to— when nutrients go through Phase 1, they come out. They’re actually more reactive than they were more dangerous than they were before they went in. That’s why it’s important to have Phase 2 and Phase 1 in sync. If you have a Phase 1 – Phase 2 mismatch, you can have a lot of free radicals kind of sitting around and uh— cause some damage to a lot of uh— different uh— structural components in the body. Uh—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it. Got it. So, if we look at this person. They have uh— homozygous here for the C1, the CYP1B1 and CYP2B6, and the— Yup. Those two. What does that mean to you? Like how….

Dr. Tim Jackson: That means…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: …how would you change the program now?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Well, so there’s different ones. If you scroll down uhm— I can’t do it, but if you can scroll down  to where it says, “2D6” for example.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: 2DC on?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. Just to where— Yeah, [crosstalk] okay. Right there. So, where it says, “2D6”—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: …heterozygous for that.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right. So, the point with this one is 30 percent of all medications go through that pathway. And—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: The CYP2D6, 30 percent…

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: …adds to.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. And, so now, it doesn’t mean you can’t uh— take that medicine and all, but she need to let your health to provide her no because— I mean, for example, a colleague of mine, her electronic medical records, she does some epigenetics too. She has like a— if she writes a script for a drug, and uh— the patient has uh— it was like a Cytochrome P2D6 polymorphism. She gets a warning box coming up. So, she has some really advance software. And that’s how it should be done. Uhm— you know— you can google the list and see all the meds, uhm— it just means that— you know— you’re gonna probably need a lower minimally effective dose. Uhm— Sometimes, some of the meds on there uh— if this C— CYP2D6 is uh— slow enough— you know— you may not be able to take those medications at all. Uhm— But going back up to where— you know— you had the 1B1, uhm— and— Sorry. [crosstalk] The 2C19

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: —19

Dr. Tim Jackson: That one’s also…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: B6?

Dr. Tim Jackson: …for— for processing a lot of medications.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: And so, uhm—the— the Cytochrome P4— the Cytochrome P4— or Cytochrome P450. The more uh— snips you have in this Phase 1 pathway, the more uhm— likely to recommend— you know— a Dual Phase Optimizer, meaning a supplement that simultaneously supports…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Phase 1 and Phase 2?

Dr. Tim Jackson: … Phase 1 and Phase 2.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: God, it would that be like herbs like Milk Thistle, Silymarin, uh— various like neo acids like Taurine and Sulfur amino acids, too?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. The Taurine— I mean— Yeah. That’s more Phase 2 but it— it does— can help Phase 1. Uhm— But, yeah. And right there, if you’d look at uhm— the last two…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Two.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …polymorphisms. Uh— Those are extremely— extremely important. Uhm— I’m heterozygous for PON1. PON1 has to do with being able to detoxify Organophosphate pesticides.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uuhh—

Dr. Tim Jackson: And so— you know— you might say, “Oh. I’m gonna eat to the— you know— avoid the dirty dozen and eat the clean fifteen.”

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Well, that’s not gonna be good enough if you have PON1.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: You got to be full organic.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. Exactly. And—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: The SOD3? What is that one?

Dr. Tim Jackson: That one, Superoxide dismutase so— you know— if Glutathione is here, SOD is right below at in terms of importance.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: They both sit in front of the Mitochondria and protect it. And the Mitochondrial DNA doesn’t have those histone proteins protecting it. And since it’s generating when it creates ATP free radicals. It’s very important to have uhm— enough Superoxide dismutase in Glutathione. So, uh— you know— way— certain uhm— you know— vegetables, cruciferous vegetables can help. But there’s also— you know— supplements uhm— that will uh— like SODzyme…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yep.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …that will raise the Superoxide dismutase. But the one big take on here is that— I mean, I don’t recommend anyone take Fluoroquinolone antibiotics…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …unless it’s a life threatening situation. And even though they have a black box warning, doctors are still handing them out like candy.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: What would be an example of a— a Fluoroquinolone?

Dr. Tim Jackson: So— Levaquin, Avelox, Cipro.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yep. Cipro’s a big one.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. And there’s— you know— two or three more, which— you know— I just can’t understand why were using things that are so potent for something so minor. But people with this polymorphism uh— I’ve seen them wheelchair-bound after being…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Wow.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …waxy.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Wow. Let’s keep on moving here and just kind of hit any of the other uh— homozygous ones here that you think are important. Anything here that you want to highlight? The ACE or the ADA

Dr. Tim Jackson:.[crosstalk] So, the ACE, the Angiotensin-converting enzyme— you know— can play a role in blood pressure, hypertension.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— It also can cause you to uh— pee out your electrolytes, especially Potassium, faster than— you know— someone without this Polymorphism.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm— And ADA as well?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uh— ADA, yeah. Uh— I can play uh— a similar role uhm— looking…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: About the BHMT?

Dr. Tim Jackson: So, the BHMT is that’s— you know— if uh— you don’t need to bring it back up. But that’s the shortcut around the methylation cycle. Normally, the one that I focus on the most is the BH—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So right here? So, right— that’s— that’s the Tetramethy— That’s the Tetra— or the— the…

Dr. Tim Jackson: Trimethylglycine

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: —glycine to the DMG— to the Dimethylglycine. That’s the shortcut right here.

Dr. Tim Jackson: E— Correct. Exactly.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And so, the most important one, at least from the research is the BHMTO8. It creates a lot of anxiety and it can further aggravate COMT by causing elevated Norepinephrine and Epinephrine. So, it’s common for alcoholics to have uh— at least one or two copies of that polymorphism. SO, those people— you know— need to uh— balance their GABA, uhm— you know— with their stimulating neurotransmitters. Uhm— And it’s that inner anxiety sort of turmoil inability to sit still that drives them to drink. Uhm— So— you know— that’s something that— you know— can be very important.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Anything else you want to highlight down here? Let’s just stick with the— the ones that you think are the most clinically relevant…

Dr. Tim Jackson: So the DEAO…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: You know— A few lines, Diamine oxidase…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— is…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Histamine enzyme?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah, is processing histamine in the gut, nd uh— you know— there are enzymes that you can take to help with that process. But you also want to take the 30,000-foot view and say, “What’s causing the mast cells…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Right.

Dr. Tim Jackson: “…to leak Histamine? So, viruses can cause it.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: Elevated Norepinephrine can cause it. Uhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Bacterial overgrowth in the gut can cause it, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Absolutely. Absolutely. And so, uhm— you know— Leftovers, eating leftover food, that can cause…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …high Histamine.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: And Histamine, as a neurotransmitter, can cause Insomnia. So that’s…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …important.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it. Anything else you wanted to highlight down here with— with the DMGDH or the D—

Dr. Tim Jackson: Naaah. [crosstalk] I’ll stick to the more, I think, relevant ones. So, this one right here, the FUT2, it has to do with uh— B12 levels, just like MTRR, uh— an MTRR, and it basically means you’re gonna need higher uh— amounts or more significant amounts of B12. BUt, it also has been correlated to lower levels of Bifidobacteria…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Mhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …in the gut. And Grace Liu from the Gut Institute, she talks…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …about this. Uhm— It doesn’t always pan out that way, obviously, that’s why— you know— you want to do a Stool test. But, uhm— it certainly can contribute to it.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it. Anything here with the GAD? [crosstalk] It has to do with the?

Dr. Tim Jackson: The GAD is super important.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: GABA right in the brain.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Glutamate— you know— is supposed to be converted to GABA with uh— as long as you have enough B6 or P5-P50, activated B6.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And, if you have the GAD polymorphism— you know— Glutamate and GABA are on a seesaw. If Glutamate gets too high, it’s gonna activate those excitatory uh— cells like [crosstalk] the microglia. Right. And over time, I mean, short term, this causes brain fog, no fatigue; long term, we’re talking Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, MS…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …type of stuff.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: What about this? What about this G6PD? I know we talked about that over in the— in the methylation cycle. Like over— Where is it? I think it— Right here. Yeah.

Dr. Tim Jackson: See where your arrow is. Oh.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: G6PD.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. Yeah. So the G6— you know— PD uh— plays a role in the whole software cycle.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: And along with SUOX uh—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …which [inaudible] doesn’t check forward to my knowledge. Uh— But you know, sulfites and sulfates and then the G6— uh— PD processing— uh— you know— is— participates a number of RAC of reactions. But processing Red Blood Cells, making sure Hemoglobin levels are optimal. Uhm— you know— Those are some of the most important things that come to mind…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …when I see the G6PD. One little just quick comment about the GAMT. I know there’s only one heterozygous. That one uh— has to do— actually that’s the GART, but in— just in case, so your listeners know, GAMT has to do with Creatine, and so— you know— you can find yourself uh— get your skeletal muscles getting fatigued prematurely, or you might have trouble putting on uh— muscle mass. UHm— But— you know— if you go to PubMed and you look up all the positive benefits of Creatine, uhm— you know— it’s a mitochondrial energy supporter. So, I just wanted to throw that out there.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: That’s great. ANything else here that you wanted to highlight as we go down the list that you think is really important?

Dr. Tim Jackson: The GSS’s. So, those are the Gluta— uh— have to do with the Glutathione pathway.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yep.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And a lot of people— you know— they’ll uh— give Glutathione. They may not be good recyclers of Glutathione.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Mmm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: And so— you know— There’s different nutrients you can use to help with the recycling process because you want it to stay uh— I mean— you want it to donate electrons, become oxidized, and then get reduced again so that it can help out.  

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Correct.

Dr. Tim Jackson: And so— you know— every stressor we encounter, especially environmental chemicals, that depletes your level of Glutathione. And then, if your— you know— not making enough uhm— or you know— your stressors are just too high— you know— you’re gonna uhm— put yourself uh— make yourself more toxic because the more inflamed you are, the less capable you are of detoxing.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uh—

Dr. Tim Jackson: And then uh— if you look at the very top there, the GSTN— you know— that’s also part of the Glutathione pathway. And— you know— when you add those up— you know— you can check RBC Glutathione or Pyroglutamate on organic acids test.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Right.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— But— you know— at the end of the day, uhm— you know— I think— I won’t say our name but— you know— she goes around letting articles saying, “Oh. You shouldn’t take Glutathione because it’s gonna cause substrate in addition.” But you look at the literature and it clearly states that as your levels decrease, your risk of every disorder known to man increases.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Right.

Dr. Tim Jackson: So, I don’t know about you but I want to stay with my Glutathione.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah. Would you also give some of the precursors as well, like the Cysteine, or the— or the Glutamine or Glycine.

Dr. Tim Jackson: You know, someone asked me uh— this question on the podcast uh— I think last week or two weeks ago, and I don’t have any answers to why. I’m still searching, so, you may know. But uh— this happened to me and it has happened to a number of my patients. I can take Glutathione until the cows coming home and I feel great. You know— Even IV pushes, but if I would take Acetylcysteine, I would get a metallic taste in my mouth uhm— and I haven’t done it recently these couple of years ago. I would have the Candida flare up, and— you know— I’ve asked a zillion practitioners and doctors. None of them can tell me why since it’s the precursor to Glutathione, uhm— but just know that it can happen. [laugh]

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Well, I would think maybe if it’s— if it’s N-Acetyl cysteine it could be— That’s also a biofilm buster, so it could be maybe liberating some bacteria.

Dr. Tim Jackson: That’s a good point.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah.

Dr. Tim Jackson: It could be.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Could be.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Absolutely.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: You know it’s possible.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Absolutely.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Are there any here that you want to highlight that you think are really important?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Slow down real quick.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Oh, no. So sorry. All the direction?

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: The HR— Sorry. HNMT’s?

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yep.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uuhm— Yeah. Those guys. So that’s Hisn— Histamine N-Methyltransferase. So that processes— es— Histamine Cysteinically.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it.

Dr. Tim Jackson: So— you know— w— we won’t talk too much about mast cell disorders but Histamine uhm— you know— we talked about a number of things that can simulate the production of Histamine, but one little nugget that I’ll pour out that most people don’t know, the Histamine is not the main chemical that mast cells release. The main chemical that they release is Prostaglandin D2.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Ooh. That’s a good one.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. And you can check it through LabCorp. Uh— It causes hair loss and balding. Uhm— but again, like we mentioned earlier, you want to find out what’s stimulating the mast cells.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Got it. So the Prostaglandin E2— So that’s [crosstalk] one is—

Dr. Tim Jackson: D2. [crosstalk] D as a dog.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Oh, D2. Okay. So, that’s not the same as the— as the Eicosanoid, the E2 pathway. It’s different.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yes. Exactly.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Wow. D2. Okay, that’s— Alright, interesting. And inflammation has many different effects. That’s why we gotta get the gut better. Phenomenal. Anything else that you want to highlight before we wrap up here, that you think is really important? Like uhm— Do you want to look at the MTHFR stuff? Didn’t you know [crosstalk] what that would do, etc?

Dr. Tim Jackson: [crosstalk] Well, I just cut out the MTHFD1…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uh— if you scroll back up a little bit.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— So, that means you need more, or you need to supplement less some form of Phosphate or Choline, [crosstalk] or some form of Choline…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …for you to help support your cell membranes…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yep.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …because uh— obviously, if your cells can’t communicate, it leads to overall tissue and organ dysfunction.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Egg yolks, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: yeah. So— you know— you can do things like Sunflower Lecithin…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yep.

Dr. Tim Jackson:uhm— etc. But you can go ahead to the next page in wr— wrap up.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And then, do you know where the MTHFR will be hiding? I— I didn’t see it in that first part there as we went through the M’s.

Dr. Tim Jackson: No. It might be— They might have moved it. They might be down here further.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah. They just— see if we can do it. M-T-H-F-R— [pause] Yeah. I’m not seeing it come up here.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Oh, if this was a recent test, day 23 on May took away 7,000 markers. [crosstalk] Oh, there they are.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Oh, there it is. Right there.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Okay.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, there here’s the 1298C.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And here’s the 677T, so he’s what? Heterozygous on one…

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhmhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: And then, on this C1, he’s homozygous.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: I absolutely don’t see this one frequently. I don’t see that one talked about.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: I don’t see that one talked about. Can you..

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. There’s not that much research on it from everything I’ve been able to dig in too.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Oh, just these, the 1298C and the C67T…

Dr. Tim Jackson: Those have the most— Yeah, have been studied the most. Exactly.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, would you worry about the— this one here as much?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Well, I— I would look at— you know— one of the methylation uh— action test or— you know— metabolite test…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: …to see what your methylation cycle is doing. Because, again— you know— you have heavy metals, you have oxidative stress— all these other variables that contribute. So— you know— you don’t want to just rely and say, “Okay. You’re a homozygous so we need to give you way more Methylfolate.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Totally. Are there any other markers that you wanted to highlight here that you think are really important, like the last marker you’d want to talk about?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— Scroll down. What’s on the next page? So [crosstalk] the NOS and the PEMT’s. The NOS’s, again, uh— Nitric oxide synthetases. Now, I’m reading a book right now, The Nitric Oxide Solution, and, of course, I knew it was a signalling pathway or system throughout the body, but it’s important for immune function, mitochondrial function. Uhm— it’s not just uhm— blood pressure and arterial health. And so, you can buy uh— Nitric oxide testing strips that you hold on to your tongue and check your levels. Uhm— And— you know— do nots— uh— against— This goes against what? You know most bodybuilders think that you don’t want  to take L-Arginine. And in fact, patients that have had an MI or heart attack, it can actually worsen their condition. Uhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: So, what would you do to increase Nitric oxide naturally?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uh— So, what I— want would be photons, from the sun…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Okay.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …or a photon machine, like I have a Lumen photon machine. And I—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Cool.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— You know— increases uh— Nitric oxide. And then uh— there’s a product called Neo40 that’s uhm— It doesn’t have a L-Arginine in it, and it helps to uhm— build up your levels. Uhm— So, that’s how you go about it. And again— you know— There’s— I’m sure there’s a lab test I don’t know about, where you can check the different types of Nitric oxide, because— you know— there’s INOS, ENOS…

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: —NOS.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yup.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— And— you know— some are beneficial, some are not. But the point being—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: The eye’s immuned. The EES Endothelial, that’s 9in the bloodstream, and then the end’s more neurological in the brain, right?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Right. Right. Exactly. And so— you know— that’s a sort of a Goldilocks phenomena. You don’t want to go too high with the Nitric oxide because uh— you know— that can stimulate— you know— different viral pathogens and deplete Lysine. Uh— But the other thing I’ll point out there is the PEMT. It’s also kind of goes with that MTHFD1 from above.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm— Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— Meaning that uh— it’s— You’re gonna require some Choline from some source. Uh— And that’s just uh— you know— super important because— you know— just like you and I are having a chat right now, if our cells are sitting next to each other, the sub membranes are unhealthy. They can’t talk. ANd that’s gonna— you know— have ramifications on every system of the body.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Love it, Dr. Tim. Are there any other genes you want to mention that we didn’t get a chance to go through in that 62-page PDF? Anything else you wanted to highlight?

Dr. Tim Jackson: There’s one called NQO1, that has to do with antioxidant function, and, in some essence, a mitochondrial health.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: NQO1?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Til I could find it, man. That’s an abstract one.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Look for the article on self-hack.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: NQO1. Yep. Not in this document. We must have missed it. I mean, 62-page PDF of— of genomes and nothing’s there on that.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Okay.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Any other ones?

Dr. Tim Jackson: No. I mean, yes, but I think that gives them a lot to digest right there.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: We’ve been over a lot of stuff, man. And again, if someone’s looking at this, and is really overwhelmed and needs some help from Dr. Tim to break some of these stuff down or go over their genetic test. Uh— Dr. Tim’s a phenomenal reference and you can get a hold of him at He’ll have a new site coming soon, which is great. Are there any other good resources you recommend to get some of these genetic markers kind of dialed in, get a better grasp on them?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Uhm— Hol— I keep uh— the phy— physician friend of mines

just emailed me a new new company that came out. A lot of these companies are kind of just taking a certain set of snips. And they’re giving like diet recommendations, exercise recommendations— you know— more Aerobic, more Anaerobic. Uhm— So— you know— a lot of those are coming out. Uh—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Any thoughts of that new— that new Viome Gut test?

Dr. Tim Jackson: I’m actually an ambassador for them and I have my butt sitting right over here. So—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: There’s this conference this last weekend in Vegas and I— I ran into Dr. Steven Berry, who started Metametrix Lab, decades ago— I’m sorry— Genova lab decades ago, and he’s kind of the big ambassador on the Viome test. So, what do you think about it. I know, it’s looking at more of the RNA, where the uBiome was looking more at the DNA aspect. What are your thoughts?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. Well, so, It’s kind of the same thing we just went over. We’re looking at uh— what’s expressing.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Uhmhm—

Dr. Tim Jackson: What metabolites are being produced. So it— we just looked at genetic polymorphisms, and we could look at an organic acids test to see what snips or— or genetic snips are uhm— expressing. But, the Viome test I’m excited to do it. Uhm— you know— It— It looks promising, but uh— I haven’t seen the report or anything yet. I got to send in my sample. But uh— it— you know— it definitely looks like  next generation type testing.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Now, from what I talked about at the conversation with Berry over the weekend, he said that it’s gonna give you food recommendations to alter your microbiome. That will tell you a lot about infections. They’re not making any rent— recommendations regarding botanicals, the herbs or antibiotics to knock out infections. Only food. So it’ll be really interesting to see— you know— as functional medicine doc, we may prescribe various herbal medicines to knock these critters out. The lab’s not really getting involved in the—

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. It includes a Glucose Tolerance test as well.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Oh, cool. That’s— That’s by Ne— Nevi Jade, right? He’s that multibillion dollar guy?

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. I’ve uh—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah.

Dr. Tim Jackson: …emailed him back and forth with him. I had no idea who he was. Then I—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: I met him last weekend, man. I met him. [crosstalk] Really nice guy. Super smart.

Dr. Tim Jackson: What—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: He’s uh— [crosstalk] a massive disrupter.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Can you say what uh— conference it was?

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah. It was the— the 10X Growth Con by— by Grant Cardone.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Oh, Grant Cardone, yeah.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah. Yeah. We’re hanging out. That was great.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Awesome.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Cool. Anything else you want add, Dr. Tim?

Dr. Tim Jackson: I think that’s it? Uhm—

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Hey, man. I really appreciate your knowledge bombs. I want to get you back on here soon. If you guys are liking this, give me a share. Give me thumbs up. Head over to Dr. Tim’s site,—

Dr. Tim Jackson: Yeah. Let us know what type of information you want to hear and we can tailor to that.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Yeah. So, give us some comments on this post. We’ll— We’ll comment down below or respond to it. Dr. Tim could check out the video as well. And everyone, hey! We appreciate. And everyone tuning in. Dr. Tim, thank you so much for your time and effort and your serious knowledge bombs.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Thank you for having me. Appreciate it.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Thanks a lot. Hey, you take care.

Dr. Tim Jackson: Alright.

Dr. Justin Marchegiani: Bye.


The Human Detoxification System by Christopher Shade (May 2015)

Importance of Low Homocysteine by Dr. Lord Metametrix

Kendal Stewart in Austin, Texas

Grace Liu from the Gut Institute

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