Causes of Insomnia and Sleep Solutions

Causes of Insomnia and Sleep Solutions

By Dr. Justin Marchegiani

Around half of the population reports difficulty falling asleep. 1 in 3 adults will suffer from insomnia at some point in their life, and only 31% of high school students report getting a full 8 hours of sleep on an average school night. We are living in a time of more sleep disorders and accidents caused by tiredness than any other point in history, today we are going to explore some of the reasons why our nation has trouble sleeping, and what we can do to reverse this growing epidemic.



There are many factors responsible for the sleep issues many of us face. Certain medications come with side effects that make it hard to sleep, as can regularly drinking caffeine later in the day. Interestingly, both eating too late and not eating enough at night can both cause trouble sleeping. Exercise, video games, and even reading lively books raise your heart rate and can make it hard to wind down at night. However, stress is one of the largest causes of sleep trouble. Worrying about commitments, scheduling, places to be and things to do all have a serious effect on sleep.



Chronic sleep deprivation is so common in our modern day and age that they symptoms often go unnoticed, or have been normalized. However, there are several adverse effects that go much further that just ‘feeling tired.’

Click here if you are having trouble sleeping for help from a functional medicine doctor!

Sleep loss has been shown to affect a variety of neurocognitive, psychological, and physical functions, including:

  • Memory loss and difficulty with memory recall
  • Increased inflammation
  • Lowers the immune system
  • Impairs driving
  • Impairment of glucose control
  • Activating the sympathetic nervous system (which decreases the movement of the large intestine, causes sweating, weakens digestive ability, raises blood pressure, and activates the fight-or-flight response!)
  • Lapses in cognition
  • Impacts mood negatively
  • Decreased motor function



Have you heard of “sleep hygiene”? Sleep hygiene is comprised of several strategies that, when implemented into your bedtime routine, set the stage for a great night’s sleep:

  • Avoid consuming alcohol, coffee, caffeinated tea, and other stimulants at least 4-6 hours before bedtime. Ideally, limit these beverages to a 12 pm cutoff time, as caffeine can stay in your body for up to 12 hours!
  • Use blackout curtains and cover up any sources of light. This means no light-up clocks and taping over any lights that might blink during the night.
  • Keep the bedroom cool: your temperature drops a few degrees during the night. Having a cool bedroom, the mid 60s is an ideal temperature range, will help you wind down.
  • Avoid working out before bed: while exercising during the day will help you get great sleep that night, working out in the evenings will cause an endorphin boost that makes it hard to fall asleep.
  • Avoid blue light at night: Blue light emitted from most light bulbs, tablets, phones, TVs, computers, and other electronics signals to your brain that it’s time to be alert. Think about it: the sun gives off light in the cool spectrum during the day, and the sunset is warm. So are fires, which is the only source of light our ancestors would have seen after sunset! If you have to look at a screen at night, there are applications that limit the blue spectrum your device emits, and there are also blue-blocking glasses you can wear for even more protection!



  • GABA: This amino acid calms your brain activity, which leads to full body and mind calmness. It reduces anxiety and helps relax your body for sleep.
  • Tryptophan: Another amino acid, tryptophan is useful in treating anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders.
  • Melatonin: Melatonin is a hormone that your body produces when it’s time for bed, so it shouldn’t be used on a nightly basis. However, if you’re trying to retrain your sleep cycle (whether it be because of a move to a different time zone, or starting a new job that requires you to go to bed earlier), melatonin can be very useful.
  • Magnesium: Magnesium is actually responsible for regulating GABA and melatonin levels. Taking magnesium can help your body regulate its sleep-wake cycle. It’s also a muscle relaxer, meaning it helps both your mind and your body to relax.
  • Holy basil: This adaptogen, also known as tulsi, reduces stress and helps you wind down.
  • Lavender: Used in a tea or as an essential oil diffused into your bedroom, lavender is a calming herb that sets the stage for sleep.



Sleep hygiene is just as important as other forms of hygiene, such as brushing your teeth and taking showers. Getting enough sleep ensures you are ready to tackle everything the next day has in store and makes you healthier! If you are still having trouble falling asleep, there are a variety of natural supplements to help you wind down.

Click here for a functional medicine consult and start feeling better today!


Natural Solutions To A Good Night Sleep

 Solutions to a Goodnight Sleep

By Dr. Justin Marchegiani

Did you know that over 40% of Americans suffer from insomnia on a daily basis? According to the national Center for sleep disorders over 10-15% of people deal with chronic insomnia on a daily basis. Another staggering statistic, the WHO considers shift-work or sleep deprivation the only non-substance carcinogen known to man. Essentially in the same class as cigarettes, asbestos and other known carcinogenic chemicals… That’s real scary!

Sleep is vitally important to help repair the body physiologically as well as psychologically. Physiological repair such as building muscles, bones, tendons, joints and ligaments etc. occurs between the hours of 10 PM and 2 AM. During this timeframe, HGH (human growth hormone) predominates. You can think of HGH is your ant-aging hormone and by maximizing sleep we can make about $2000-$3000 worth per month for free. Between the hours of 2 and 6 AM the body psychologically regenerates, essentially meaning neurotransmitters and other hormones neurochemicals that help with mental health become recycled and repaired.

Cortisol and it’s Circadian Rhythm 

sleep rhythm
The accelerated health risks for poor sleep

 Risks of Poor Sleep
An increased risk of diabetes
Accelerated aging
An increased risk of cancer
Decreased immune function
Obesity and overweight
Poor physical performance
Slow mental acuity

It’s estimated that over $100 billion is lost each year due to the loss productivity that lack of sleep causes and is also the main cause of 100,000 vehicle accidents per year as well as 1500 related deaths from those accidents.

The major underlying causes of sleep deprivation:

17% of all US employees are shift workers that have to stay up working during the night instead of sleeping. If I can urge anyone to make an investment in their health, the first thing would be finding a job that allows flexibility to sleep during normal sleep hours. The research is very clear, the increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases and lack of performance will cost you more in the long run financially and physically.

Chronic stressors can be huge underlying cause of sleep problems this could include (relationship stress, caffeine, chronic illness, infections, blood sugar imbalances, family stress and hormonal imbalances). One thing that all stress has in common whether it’s internal stress or external stress is the increase of cortisol and adrenaline. Knocking your cortisol and adrenaline out of balance puts a great deal of stress on your adrenal glands. Your cortisol rhythm at night is intimately tied in with your melatonin rhythm (melatonin is your night time hormone the keeps you sleep) and the more you push your cortisol and adrenaline out of balance your melatonin will also be negatively impacted and so will your sleep. More research is coming out daily on the anticancer effects of melatonin so optimizing your sleep will help lower your risk of cancer.

Stimulants such as caffeine can affect you from getting to sleep on time. Caffeine has a half-life of  up to eight hours, so consuming your 1 to 2 cups of coffee or tea before 2 PM in the afternoon gives your body enough time to metabolize the caffeine before your bedtime.

Certain medications can also interfere with sleep like antidepressants corticosteroids, allergy medication and blood pressure medication. If you are currently taking a medication and also have a sleep problem please look up the possible side effects of the medication you are taking and see if sleep disturbances are potential side effect.

Click here if you are having sleep difficulties.

Dr. Justin’s top 7 sleep enhancing tip

1. Exercise every single day, especially using the peak eight program. Using peak eight (burst training) program as well as a combination of resistance training can make a significant difference. The right kinds of exercise can increase human growth hormone which has an excellent effect at blunting cortisol and increasing the repair of your body.

2. Picking relaxing teas such as chamomile or sleepy tea before bed. These types of teas contain certain amino acids such as L-theonine, which help to increase certain neurotransmitters like GABA which help promote relaxation.

3. For certain individual’s melatonin can be a great choice.  I recommend using a sub-lingual version, this helps increase absorption as well as increasing activation time. Again, melatonin may not be right for every single person. Some individuals taking melatonin actually makes sleep issues worse. When this occurs there’s usually an underlying hormonal imbalance present.

4. Many of my menopausal female patients have hormonal imbalances that need to be addressed. Low progesterone can be a common cause of sleep deprivation and insomnia. Progesterone has a relaxation effect by opening the GABA chloride channels in the brain and can have similar effect as taking a Xanax with out the side effects. Running a female hormone test can help evaluate this imbalance as well as provide the specific information in regards to dosing and timing of when the natural female hormone support should be administered.

5. Download a free app for your phone entitled “white noise.” White noise can be very helpful at blocking other ambient noise that could potentially wake you up throughout the night. Again if you keeping your phone plugged-in in your bedroom, please make sure it is across the room and if it’s a smart phone also make sure it is in airplane mode. The EMF from the phone can disrupt your sleep and even can prevent you from getting into deeper phases of sleep.

6. Eating a little bit of protein and fat within two hours before bed can help stabilize your blood sugar and prevent cortisol spikes during the night. The suggestion may be against conventional wisdom in regards to eating right before bed but low blood sugar throughout the night will cause your cortisol to go up and increasing cortisol can disrupt your sleep and cause you to wake. A little bit of protein and fat before bed can make a big difference.

7. Give yourself at least one hour before bed to wind down. Turn off the TV, tablets, computers and phones and pick up a non-stimulating book instead. Engaging in meditation and prayer before bed can be very helpful. A simple meditation can include just counting backwards from 10 to 0 with all of your attention focused on your breath and not the problems and stressors of yesterday or tomorrow. Engaging in prayer especially focused on gratitude and all that you have to be thankful for in your life can provide a natural neurotransmitter and hormonal boost that can set you up for a great night sleep.

To receive my full handout entitled “33 secrets to a good night sleep,” click here!

To help get your sleep and energy back on track click here!

The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Justin Marchegiani unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Justin and his community. Dr. Justin encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified healthcare professional. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Dr. Marchegiani’s products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your physician before using any products.